PKI, TLS and Ephemeral Things
A popular discussion topic at the recent mid-cycle was that of Anchor and more general PKI issues. Anchor (and systems like it) issue short-lived certificates to services that require them - be they server side services or client applications. The main advantage of short-lived certificates is that they work around the common shortfalls of traditional revocation techniques.
A certificate is in essence an attestation from a third party that a server or client is who it claims to be. Any system that trusts the third party will trust certificates provided by it. As certificates are often granted for years, it is of the highest importance that a certificate can be revoked if that trust is undermined - as in the case of a compromised private key (remember heartbleed?) of similar loss of integrity.
## Typical Revocation Certificates are typically revoked through two means. The first are the somewhat traditional Certificate Revocation Lists (CRL) - a signed list of revoked certificate fingerprints. There are significant real world problems with implementing CRLs today. Lets start with the obvious. Try searching your hard drive for a CRL (it’s ok, I’ll wait) - couldn’t find any could you? That’s because operating systems don’t ship with CRL files any more, over the years the CRL files of major internet Certificate Authorities have grown to be several GB large and subsequently aren’t shipped with any major OS and are rarely downloaded by any of the commonly installed crypto suites (the collection of services and libraries that provide cryptographic functionality to applications).
In order to provide a scalable revocation mechanism for PKI, RFC 6960 - “Online Certificate Status Protocol” was drafted. This protocol is a lightweight live verification system, where a service can verify a certificate in realtime by querying an OCSP responder - a service operated by the Certificate Authority that issued the certificate. This protocol is what is generally used for certificate revocation by web browsers today. However, there are a few problems when trying to use OCSP for local networks, one of the biggest is that OCSP suffers from a replay attack. An attacker can capture a legitimate ‘Certificate OK’ response and play that back to a querying service that is being attacked, even after a certificate has been revoked. Some methods exist to mitigate against these attacks, including the option inclusion of an nonce however it should be noted that most cryptographic libraries don’t support the nonce and that even when they do, OCSP responses normally have a 24 hour expiry window, which means the response can often be replayed even if an nonce is in use. A recent Mozilla article mentions that OCSP responders are not yet reliable enough to allow browsers to hard-fail on missing OCSP responses. Meaning that attackers who control part of a network - something PKI is supposed to help defend against - can render revocation useless by denying access to OCSP responders.
On paper, PKI is very secure, in practice it’s not always the most well implemented of security mechanisms. Although this is a little off-topic I’d suggest the reader checks out “More Tricks for Defeating SSL” - a talk given by Mixe Marlinspike at Defcon 17 - it’s just a great presentation with excellent related content - skip to 35:20 for some scary stuff around revocation - the attack doesn’t work any more but it is one of my all time favorite vulnerabilites
The biggest issue with OCSP with regard to OpenStack is that it’s very rarely implemented in the various cryptographic libraries available for Linux.
## Passive Revocation The OpenStack security team developed a PKI system for use inside OpenStack that doesn’t perform either form of traditional revocation. The Anchor project uses a system of ‘Passive Revocation’ - it issues very short lifetime certificates and instead of revoking bad certificates it will instead simply refuse to issue new ones for a client system that has been revoked.
This is obviously a big departure from more traditional certificate issuance models and it brings with it some new requirements. The primary one being that now machines that need to use certificates must request certificates significantly more often, which necessitates an automated certificate issuing capability. Anchor provides this service with robust authentication and systems for understanding if a certificate meets various policy constraints.
I’ve spoken at length on Anchor, so instead of repeating all of the details here, I’ve embedded a couple of youtube links from summit talks:
## Usage within OpenStack Anchor is best used to provide internal TLS within OpenStack deployments. It’s currently leveraged within the HPE Helion cloud product and I’m glad to be able to write that after some discussion at the Security Mid-Cycle the indomitable Major Hayden of Rackspace has already written up a mailing list post and an accompanying etherpad discussing how TLS might be improved in OpenStack Ansible using anchor.